Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Echinops ritro L. and E. tournefortii Jaup. Et. Spach Extract

Main Article Content

Çigdem Aydın Gülten Taşdelen Özcan Murat Turan Ramazan Mammadov

Abstract

Aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Echinops ritro L. and E. tournefortii (Asteraceae). The dried leaves and seeds of E. ritro and E. tournefortii were extracted separately with ethanol, methanol, chloroform and dH2O. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by two test systems namely, radical scavenging on DPPH and β-carotene bleaching methods. dH2O extracts has the highest phenolic content (92.24 GAE mg/100g). The results were compared to those of BHT as synthetic antioxidant. dH2O extracts were found to be rich as a source of phenolics. According to the results of antioxidant activity, dH2O extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than all types of solvent. The strongest antioxidant properties were obtained by dH2O extract. Radical scavenging activities (%) were found to be in the following order: Chloroform<Ethanol<Methanol<dH2O<BHT. These results of the present study demonstrated that the extracts of E. ritro and E. tournefortii may be used as a source of natural antioxidant in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Article Details

Section
Sending to International Journal of Secondary Metabolite
Author Biographies

Çigdem Aydın, Science, Pamukkale Univercity

biology department

Gülten Taşdelen Özcan, pamukkale univercity

biology

Murat Turan, pamukkale univercity

biology

Ramazan Mammadov, pamukkale univercity

biology

References

Afshaki, S., Jafari, A., Javidnia, K., Firuzi, O. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of four plant extracts from Dena region of Iran. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012, 7(5):853-9.
Buyukokurouglu, ME., Gulcin, I., Oktay, M., Kufrevioglu, OI. In vitro antioxidant properties of dantrolene sodium. Pharmacol Res. 2001, 44: 491–4.
Desta, B. Ethiopian Traditional Herbal Drugs Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal-plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993, 39: 129-139.
Erenler, R., Yilmaz, S., Aksit, H., Sen, O., Genc, N. Elmastas, M., Demirtas, I. Antioxidant Activities of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Echinops orientalis Trauv. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2014, 8(1): 32-36.
Fokialakis, N., Cantrell, CL., Duke, SO., Skaltsounis, AL., Wedge, DE. Antifungal activity of thiophenes from Echinops ritro. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54(5): 1651-5.
Fokialakis, N., Kalpoutzakis, E., Tekwani, B.L., Khan, SI., Kobaisy, M., Skaltsounis, AL., Duke, SO. Evaluation of the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of plants from the Greek island of Crete. J. Nat. Med. 2007, 61: 38–45.
Garnatje, T., Valles, J., Garcia, S., Hidalgo, O., Sanz, M., Canela, MA., Siljak-Yakovlev, S. Genome size in Echinops L. and related genera (Asteraceae, Cardueae): karyological, ecological and phylogenetic implications. Biol Cell. 2004, 96: 117-124.
Kamatou, GPP., Viljoen, AM., Steenkamp, P. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and HPLC analysis of South African Salvia species. Food Chem. 2010, 119: 684–688.
Khadri, A., Serralheiro, MLM., Nogueira, JMF., Neffati, M., Smiti, S., Araújo, MEM. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of essential oils from Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. Determination of chemical composition by GC-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Food Chemistry. 2008, 109(3): 630–637.
Krimat, S., Dob, T., Toumi, M., Kesouri, A., Noasri, A. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of Salvia chudaei Batt. et Trab. endemic medicinal plant from Algeria. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2015, 6(1): 70-78.
Lee, YM., Kim, H., Hong, EK., Kang, BH., Kim, SJ. Water extract of 1:1 mixture of Phellodendron cortex and Aralia cortex has inhibitory effects on oxidative stress in kidney of diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000, 73: 429–36.
Özhatay, N., Kültür, Ş., Aslan, S. Check-list of additional taxa to the Supplement Flora of Turkey IV. Turk J Bot. 2009, 33: 191-226.
Pai, SR., Nimbalkar, MS., Pawar, NV., Patil, RP., Dixit, GB. Seasonal discrepancy in phenolic content and antioxidant properties from bark of Nothopodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. Int J Pharm Biosci. 2010, 1:1–17.
Rimbau, V., Cerdan, C., Vila, R., Iglesias, J. Antiinflammatory activity of Some extracts from plants used in the traditional medicine of North-African Countries. Phytother Res. 1999, 13(2): 128-32.
Shukla, YN. Chemical, botanical and pharmacological studies on the genus Echinops : A review. J. Med Arom Pl Sci. 2003, 25: 720-32.
Slinkard, K., Singleton, VL. Total Phenol Analysis: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods. American J. Enology and Viticulture. 1977, 28(1): 49-55.
Suarez, C., Barrera, C., Caballero, A. Quinolone alkaloids and friedelanetype triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata kunt Rutaceae. Quim. Nova 2011, 34(6): 984-86.
Susanna, A., Garcia-Jacas, N. The tribe Cardueae In: Kadereit J & Kubitzki K (eds.). Compositae. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2007, pp. 135-158.
Vural, C., Şapcı, H. Five new records of the genus Echinops (Asteraceae) from Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 2012, 36: 151-160.
Yesıloglu, Y., Sıt, L., Kılıc, I. In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Various Extracts of Satureja hortensis L. Collected from Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2013, 25(15): 8311-8316